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Press of Wm. Osman ft Son». 




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ft Son». 

In writing this little book, it has been our constant 
aim to make it, as nearly as possible, an autobiogra- 
phy, giving Miss Krarer's own thoughts and words, 
avoiding some of the little errors, caused by her im- 
perfect knowledge of English, which are thought hy 
some to add a certain charm to her conversation. 
If, near the conclusion, I may seem to have departed 
from this plan, it is only because she desired me to 
attempt the expression of her thought in more eial>- 
orate language than she can herself, at present, make 

use of. 
She is authority for the facts, from beginning tr> 


Hoping that the story of her eventful life may be 
as interesting to those who read, as it has alreadj' 
been to thousands who have heard it from her own 
lips ; and with the heartfelt wish that it may be the 
means of enabling her to accomplish her cherished 
purpose, I am glad to have this opportunity of as- 
sisting in her work. 

Albert S. Post. 

# . i 



I WAS born in Greenland, on the east coast. I am 
the youngest of eight children. My three sisters 
and four brothers are all living in Iceland. My 
father is living in Manitoba. My mother died in 
Iceland when I was sixteen years old. 

We lived near the sea-shore in Greenland. Our 
house was built of snow. It was round, perhaps 
sixteen feet across, and coming to a point at the top. 
It was lined with fur on all sides, and was carpeted 
with a double thickness of fur. 

The way they lined the house was to take a skin 
of some animal, and hold it near a fire, which was 
in the centre of the room. When the skin was heat- 
ed through, they took it and pressed it against the 
wall. In a short time, it stuck to the wall so tightly 
that it could not be pulled off without tearing the 


The door was a thick curtain of fur, hung over 
the doorway, by heating the upper part, and letting 
it .stick fast to the wall. Outside of the door was a 
long, narrow passageway, just high enough for one 
of us little Esquimaux people to stand up straight 
in. That would be about high enough for a child 



i . i 

2 Olof Krarci. 

six years old, in this country ; and it was only widr 
enough for one person to go through at a time. If 
one wanted to go out, and another wanted to go in. 
at the same time, one would have to back out an<i 
let the other go first. This passageway was not 
straight ; but turned to one side, so as not to let the 
wind blow in. 

Our fireplace was in the centre of the house. The 
bottom was a large, flat stone, with other stones and 
whalebone put about the edge to keep the fire from 
getting out into the room. When we wanted to 
build a fire, we would put some whalebone and lean 
meat on the stone; then a little dry moss was put 
in, and then my father would take a flint and a 
whale's tooth, or some other hard bone, and strike fire 
upon the moss. Sometimes he could do it easily, 
but sometimes it took a long while. After the fire 
started he would put some blubber upon it. 

Although it was so very cold, we would often be 
without a fire, for what we made the fire of was what 
we had to live on, and we could not always afford to 
burn it. Our fire did not warm the room very much. 
It was mostly to give light, so that it might be a 
little more cheerful in the room. When we had no 
fire it was very dark. 

There was no chance to play round and romp in- 
side the snow-house. We just had to sit with our 
arms folded and keep .still. It was in this way that 
my arms came to have such a different shape from 
people's arms in this country. Where their muscle 

» * » 

. I (iiiOl Dt'/iidi )'. 

and it was only with' 
irou^'h at a time. If 
ther wanted to go in. 
have to back out and 
passageway was not 
le, so as not to let the 

trc of the house. The 
with other stones and 
to keep the fire from 
When wc wanted to 
e whalebone and lean 
:le dry moss was put 
d take a flint and a 
rd bone, and strike fire 
e could do it easily, 
while. After the fire 
bber upon it. 
I, we would often be 
ie the fire of was what 
i not always afford to 
the room very much. 
3 that it might be a 
d. When we had no 

' round and romp in- 
: had to sit with our 

was in this way that 
different shape from 

Where their muscle 

is large and strong, I have but very little; and instead 
of that, I have a large bunch of muscle on the upper 
side of my arms, and they are crooked, so that I can 
never straighten them. A doctor in Iceland once 
tried to straighten one arm by pulling, but he could 
not change it one bit; and it was very sore for a long 
time afterward and the muscles were much swollen. 
But it was not so with my father and brothers. They 
went out to hunt and had more anti more 
pulling to do, and so their arms were straight. 

It was a great thing when the men w^uld come 
home from a hunt, for then we would have a j^'reat 
ileal to talk about: — how far they went, how cold it 
was, how they found the bear, or walrus, or seal, and 
who was most active and brave in killing it. Father 
would often say to mother, " Oh, how I wish you had 
been along, for we had such a nice drink of warm 
blood." The warm blood of a dying animal was con- 
sidered the greatest luxury we could get, because we 
had not any cooked food at all. We ate it all frozen 
and raw, except when fresh from the animal. It was 
a great thing to strike the animal first with a spear, 
for the one who drew first blood was owner of the 
skin and was the boss of the whole job. They just 
had to cut it to suit him. The flesh was div.ded 
equally between all the hunters. 

Sometimes we used to get very tired in the dark 
snow-house, and then we would try a little amuse- 
ment. Two of us would sit down on the fur carpet 
and look into one another's faces and guess who ivas 


4 Olof Krnrer. 

the prettiest. Wc had to guess, for we had no look- 
ing-glass in which to see our own faces. The one 
whose face shone slickest with the grease was called 
the prettiest. 

V at any time we grew too tired of it all and ven- 
tured to romp and play, we were in danger of being 
punished. As there were no trees from which to 
cut switches there, they took a different way. When 
any child was naughty, mother would take a bone 
and she would put it into the fire and leave it there 
until it was hot enough for the grease to boil out. 
Then she would take it and slap that on her child 
and burn it. She was not particular where she 
burned her child, only she was careful not to touch 
the face. 

I can well remember what I got my last punish- 
ment for. I had been playing with my little broth- 
er inside the and I got mad at him, and 
so I threw him down and bit him on the back of the 
neck. Then mother heated a bone and burned me 
on the same place where I bit him. I got tired of 
that and didn't do that kind of a trick afterwards. 

But it was not always so that we had to stay in 
the snow-house. Once in a while father would come 
in and say it was not so cold as usual, and then we 
would have a' chance to look round outside the snow- 
house. We never took a long walk. As nearly as I 
can remember, my father's house was on a low plain 
near the sea-shore. It sloped gently inland, and we 
could have seen a great way into the back country 


The Dof[-Shii:;li Ride 


less, for we had no look- 
r own faces. The one 
th the grease was called 

o tired of it ail and ven- 
werc in danger of being 
no trees from which to 
>: a different way. When 
)ther would take a bone 
z fire and leave it there 
the grease to boil out. 
slap that on her child 
; particular where she 
as careful not to touch 

I got my last punish- 
ig with my little broth- 
i I got mad at him, and 
: him on the back of the 
a bone and burned me 
it him. I got tired of 
of a trick afterwards, 
hat we had to stay in 
tvhile father would come 

as usual, and then we 
round outside the snow- 
ig walk. As nearly as I 
ouse was on a low plain 
:d gently inland, and we 

into the back country 

if it had not been for the great snowdrifts and 
masses of ice. There were some steep, jagged rocks 
in sight of our village, and during the long daytime 
enough of the snow would melt off to leave the rocks 
bare in a few places. On these bare spots we would 
find a kind of brown moss, which we gathered and 
dried to light our fires with. 

We never saw anything green in Greenlan ;, and 
I never could understand why they called it by that 

When we looked out toward the ocean, we could 
not see very far, for even in the warmest season there 
was only a small space of open water, and beyond 
that the ice was all piled up in rough, broken masses. 

The great event in our family life, however, was 
the dog-sleigh ride. When father told us we could 
go, we came as near dancing and clapping our hands 
for joy as Esquimau.x children ever did. But we did 
not have a fine cutter, with large horses and chiming 
bells. We did not even have an old-fashioned bob- 
sled, in which young men and young women have 
such good times in your country. 

Sometimes the sleigh would be made of a great 
wide piece of bone from the jaws of a whale, one 
end of which turned up like a runner. * But more 
often it would be either a skin of some animal laid 
flat on the ground, or a great frozen fish cut in two 
at the back and then turned right over. I never saw 
such a fish in this country, or in Iceland, so I cannot 
tell what kind of fish it was. 

6 Olof K rarer. 

Our sleigh was drawn by dogs — sometimes six and 
sometimes ten or twelve. Each dog had a collar 
round his neck and a strip of reindeer hide tied into 
the collar and to the sleigh. When the dogs were 
well broken, they did not need any lines to guide 
them; but if they were not well trained, they had to 
have lines to contr.ol them. While we were getting 
ready to start, the dogs would jump about and whine 
and be as anxious to go as fiery horses in this coun- 
try. The trained dogs would run forward and put 
their noses right into their collars without any trou- 
ble. When all was ready, away we went! It was 
great fun! The dogs could carry the sleigh faster 
than horses do in this country. Sometimes the 
sleigh was bumped and tumbled about a good deal 
on the rough ice, and once in a while it tipped over. 

The dogs are about the size of shepherd dogs :ind 
have sharp pointed ears. They are very strong, and 
have heavy coats of long hair, which often drags 
upon the snow. They are of a dirty gray color. 

When my father had as many as ten or twelve 
dogs, he had a separate snow-house for them and 
kept them in that; but when he had lost or lent his 
dogs, so that he had only two or three, he would 
let them come into the snow-house with us. Our 
dogs had the same kind of food to live on that we 
had, and sometimes when food was scarce they had 
a hard time of it. They were never fed when we 
were going to start out for a sleigh ride, for then the>' 
would lie right down and refuse to mv)ve one step. 

/ t t 











tAtni^- Days and Nia^hts. 

gs — sometimes six and 
Lach dog had a collar 
reindeer hide tied into 
When the dogs were 
eed any lines to guide 
:11 trained, they had to 
tVhilc we were getting 
jump about and whine 
ry horses in this coun- 

run forward and put 
liars without any trou- 
^ay we went! It was 
carry the sleigh faster 
ntry. Sometimes the 
led about a good deal 
a while it tipped over. 
t of shepherd dogs ;ind 
ey are very strong, and 
air, which often drags 

a dirty gray color, 
lany as ten or twelve 
w-house for them and 
he had lost or lent his 
vo or three, he would 
,f-house with us. Our 
food to live on that we 
id was scarce they had 
:re never fed when we 
leigh ride, for then they 
ise to mv)ve one step. 

But whenever we came back from a ride they were 
well fed. 

Our dogs were very useful to us in other ways 
than drawing our sleighs, for they were very sharp 
and good to hunt. They helped to kill the polar 
bear, and to find the seal and walrus. 

Now, in order that you may understand our way 
of living better, I will explain that we have six 
months' night in Greenland, and during that time 
nothing is seen of the sun. The moon changes very 
much as it does here, and we have the light of the 
stars. Then most of the time the beautiful northern 
lights may be seen dancing and leaping about, with 
many colored rainbow beauties. The white snow is 
always on the ground, so that even when the moon 
and northern lights did not show, we could see to 
hunt round. Before and after the night time, there 
was about a month of twilight, and this was our 
finest time of the year. We had then the best 
chance to hunt. 

In the long day we had the hardest time, for then 
the sun shone out so brightly that we would be made 
snow blind if we ventured far from home. The day 
was four months long, and if we did not have food 
enough stored away in an ice cave to last us through, 
we would be in great danger of starving. 

The best time to hunt is when the ice breaks up. 
My people know when this is going to happen by 
the noise. There is a rumbling sound like distant 
thunder. Whoever hears that sound first goes from 

J, — 

8 Olflf Krarcr. 

house to house and gives warning, so that ali may 
be ready to join in the hunt. Then the hunters get 
their spears and let out their dogs, and hurry to the 
placi where the sound is heard. The polar bear 
hears the sound also, and hastens to the place, for it 
is here that he, too, miist make his living. This is 
the only time that Esquimau.x ever dare to tackle a 
polar bear, for when he is going about alone and 
hungry he is very fierce and dangerous; but when 
the ice breaks up the bear goes straight for the 
sound. This grows louder and longer, until there is 
a mighty crash, louder than thunder, and great walls 
of ice are thrown high in air, and a space of open 
water is to be seen. When the commotion has 
ceased, my people crowd along the edge of the water. 
They first look out for the bear, for they don't want 
him to catch any of their seals. They have some of 
their dogs loose in front of the sleigh, and some of 
them harnessed to it. When they come to the bear, 
he is busy watching for seal and pays very little at- 
tention to the hunters or their dogs. The loose 
dogs run up to him and begin to worry him. He 
chases some of them, and the others bite him behind. 
If he makes a rush at the hunters in their sleighs, the 
dog teams draw them swiftly away. The loose dogs 
keep on worrying the bear until he becomes furious 
with rage. Every little while a sweep of his huge 
paw lays one of his enemies on the snow, silent in 
death. A few minutes later, perhaps, another will 
be caught up in the powerful embrace of the great 













rning, so that ali may 
Then the hunters get 

dogs, and hurry to the 
»ard. The polar bear 
itens to the place, for it 
ke his living. This is 
X ever dare to tackle a 
going about alone and 
dangerous; but when 

goes straight for the 
nd longer, until there is 
hunder, and great walls 

and a space of open 
n the commotion has 
ig the edge of the water, 
jar, for they don't want 
lis. They have some of 
lie sleigh, and some of 
\ they come to the bear, 
and pays very little at- 
heir dogs. The loose 
;gin to worry him. He 
others bite him behind. 
Iters in their sleighs, the 
' away. The loose dogs 
ntil he becomes furious 
le a sweep of his huge 

on the snow, silent in 
, perhaps, another will 
1 embrace of the great 

A Bear ITuiit. 9 

brute. The dogs crowd in and take hold wherever 
they can. The bear grows frantic in his struggles to 
punish his adversaries. At last he lies at full length 
panting upon the snow. Then it is that some hunter 
ventures to leave his dog-sled and try to kill him 
with a walrus tusk. No sooner is he sure that the 
animal is dying than he hastens to get a drink of 
warm blood. Then a long cut is made down the 
belly of the animal with the points of the walrus 
tusks and the skin is pulled and pushed off with their 
hands. Ali hands feast upon the warm grease that 
is inside the animal, and after that they divide the 
meat and take it home. 

I will now e.xplain that the breaking up of the ice 
I have told about is not from thawing. In the 
warmest time we ever saw in that part of Green- 
land where I came from, it never thawed enough to 
make the water run in streams. A few bare spots 
were melted off on the rocks and high points of 
land. Once in a while the snow would melt enough 
to drip a little, and form icicles, but not often. It 
was cold, cold, bitter cold, all the year round, and 
the people in this country can hardly have an idea 
of it, even in the coldest weather here. From this 
we see that there could be no chance for heat 
enough to make the thick ice break up by thawing. 
Have you ever .seen a tub which was full of water 
frozen nearly solid.' Then, perhaps you remember 
that the middle was heaved up and cracked to pieces 
by ^^^G. frost. This, J think, is what takes place in 


Olof Krarcr. 

the Northern seas, only on a far grandc- scale. A 
rumbling sound can be heard for some time before 
it really breaks up; but. when it doe;, come, there is 
an awful roar like loudest thunder, and great blocks 
of ice are lifted and piled one above another, until 
they are higher than the tops of the highest build- 
ings in this country. As it breaks up a good many 
times in the same place, these ice mountains are 
piled higher and higher, until they get so large we 
cannot see over them or round them at all. Each 
time the ice breaks up, there is an open space 
where the water is free from ice, and the walruses 
and seals come up to breathe. Sometimes a walrus 
will crawl away from this opening far enough for the 
hunters to head him off and kill him. The walrus 
is hard to kill, for he is so watchful, and there is no 
way to call him as they do the seal. But when killed 
he is quite a prize. 

In hunting the seal, they take a different plan. 
The seal is very fond of its young. The hunters will 
take advantage of this by lying flat on the ice and 
making a sound like the cry of a young seal. In this 
way they manage to call the old seal out on the ice. 
But even then it is not always easy to catch the seal, 
for it has a strong, flexible tail, by means of which 
it is able to throw itself a good many feet at a time, 
so that even when on the ice it sometimes gets away 
with its awkward rolls and flops and jumps. A seal 
is very active and almost always in motion. 

Our greatest prize was the whale. Once in a while 















dipt II If of a WImle. 


ar grandc- scale. A 
"or some time before 
: doe;, come, there is 
der, and great blocks 

above another, until 
Df the highest build- 
;aks up a good many 
56 ice mountains are 
they get so large we 

them at all. Each 
e is an open space 
ice, and the walruses 

Sometimes a walrus 
ing far enough for the 
:ill him. The walrus 
hful, and there is no 
seal. But when killed 

;akc a different plan, 
ng. The hunters will 
ig flat on the ice and 

a young seal. In this 
Id seal out on the ice. 
easy to catch the seal, 
, by means of which 
\ many feet at a time, 

sometimes gets away 
IS and jumps. A .seal 
y^s in motion, 
hale. Once in a while 

one would get entangled in the breaking ice so that 
it could not get away, and then everybody would be 
out to help or see the fun. A great many ropes of 
reindeer hide would be brought out and a great 
many spears stuck into the animal. Then the men 
would join together and try to pull the huge creature 
out of the water. Even with the help of all the dogs 
that could be u.sed it was hard work, but they would 
manage it after a while Then all would give a great 
shout and have great joy over the whale. One rea.soM 
for their rejoicing was that the whale had so much 
blubber. Blubber is the inside fat of the whale. 
There is a fine skin over it and it looks like tallow 
or leaf lard. It is quite hard in my country, but 
would melt down into what you would call whale oil 
in this country. After the whale is cut up we would 
have a great feast and eat all we could. Then, after 
taking the meat home, we would .spend a long time 
eating and sleeping. 

It was only when the ice broke up and the people 
came together to hunt that they met one another. 
All the rest of the time the families stay in their 
own homes, and do not visit back and forth as your 
people do. The only exceptions arc, when a man 
needs meat, or blubber, or a flint, and goes to borrow, 
or when a young man goes to steal his girl. There 
is no buying and selling, and no trading. Any one 
can get what he needs by asking for it, if it is in the 
village. The people try to treat each other as broth- 
ers and sisters. 


Ohf Knurr. 

I will now txplaiii a stranjie custom amon^ our 
people. When a young man j^cts to be about 25 
jrears old lie is full thrown and is considered lo be of 
age. Me then begins to think of beginning life for 
himself. It is a risky thing in my country to get a 
wife. A young man has to steal his girl out of her 
parents' snow-house and get her away into another. 
If he is caught trying to do this the girl's parents 
turn right on him and kill him. If he has not pluck 
enough to steal a girl for himself, he has to live alone, 
and when he goes to sleep he crawls head first into 
a fur sack. When he wants to get up he must crawl 
out backwards. I suppose he is what you would call 
an-old bachelor. 

A young man, who sees a girl he thinks he would 
like to have for a wife, makes a great many excuses 
to come to her father's snow-house. Sometimes he 
wants to borrow a flint, or blubber, or something 
else. If he comes without any excuse, the girl's pa- 
rents tell him, " I know very well what you do want; 
you want my girl, but you never shall get her." 
Then he gets kind of scared and runs off But he 
sneaks round again pretty often. He thinks may be 
her parents will go out for a dog-sleigh ride, or may 
be they would lay them down to sleep some time. 
If he does get her out of the snow-house without 
being caught, the. girl's parents send right back for 
him and think nobody is any smarter than he is, and 
do all they can for him. 

The reason a girl's parents want the young man 

t<,,r7-ma\, mc^m* )*.4-kn 8e*BMm -rtTiTn li itTi " im« fii II wmu ,w *mmt .Ct M\i\ 

,' custom amonji our 

j(cts to be about 25 

is considered lo be of 

of befjinniiiff life for 

my country to get a 

al his girl out of her 

;r away into another. 

lis the girl's parents 

If he has not pluck 

If, he has to live alone, 

rawls head first into 

get up he must crawl 

s what you would call 

rl he thinks he would 
I great many excuses 
ouse. Sometimes he 
lubber, or something 
' excuse, the girl's pa- 
ell what you do want; 
levcr shall get her." 
nd runs off But he 
1. He thinks may be 
)g-sleigh ride, or may 
to sleep some time. 
; snow-house without 
ts send right back for 
martcr than he is, and 

vant the young man 

rih- liifiuil l\Si/iiiiii(iii.\. 


. f 

to steal her is, the)- want lu fun! out whether he 
is willing to risk his life for his own girl or not. 
They think if he is not smart enough to steal a girl, 
he would not be smart enough to take care of her — 
kill a polar bear, so that she would have enough to 
live on. 

There arc not many old bachelors in my country, 
for if a man has not spunk enough to steal a girl he 
is looked clown upon as a sort of soft, good-for-noth- 
ing fellow. 

Many people are disappointed when they see me, 
because I am not darker colored, with black hair. 
More of my people have light hair than dark, and 
we know that we are naturally a fair-skinned people, 
because when a baby is born in my country it is just 
as white as any American baby, and it has light hair 
and blue eyes. But the mother does not wash it 
with soft water and soap, as they do in this country, 
but she goes to work and greases it all over, and the 
child is never washed from the day he is born till he 
dies, if he remains in that country. The mother 
wraps her little one in the skin of a young seal, 
which has been made very soft by pounding and 
rubbing it on the ice. If baby cries, the mother will 
not take it up and care for it, but she puts it in a 
corner and leaves it there until it stops crying, and 
then she takes it up and pets it. She can only nurse 
it about a month. Then the mother will warm some 
blubber for it; but in a little while it live just 
like the rest. She carries the baby in her hood, and 


Olof Krntrr. 

(Iocs not expect it to learn to walk until between 
two and three years old. Then she makos a suit for 
it of young seals fur. When the child becomes 
larger, say six or seven years old. a thicker suit is 
made of polar bear skin; and then little "Auska" 
feels as proutl of his new clothes as "Our Charlie" 
does of his new boots, and the chubby "Roegnia" 
rejoices over her white suit as much as dainty Flora 
in her arctics and muff and fur collar. But Au.ska 
and Roegnia are dressed more nearly alike than 
Charlie and Flora. Men's clothes arc just like 
women's clothes; only a woman's coat comes down to 
a point and man's coat is cut off square, and that is 
all the difference. They wear fur mittens and fur 

I think it would be very nice for some ladies in 
this country, if they were to go to Greenland; for 
they would have no washing, no ironing, no scrub- 
bing and no cooking to do. They don't even have 
to wash their faces or comb their hair. Esquimaux 
people have only the salt ocean water, and if they 
had soft, fresh water they dare not use it, for it would 
be like poison to their flesh when the thermometer 
was 60= or 7o» below zero. So, when they eat, my 
people take a chunk of raw meat in one hand and a 
chunk of blubber in the other, and take a bite of 
each until it is eaten. Then they carefully rub the 
grease and fat all over their hands and face, and feel 
splendid afterwards. 
The women have long hair, made dark by the 

walk until between 

she mak-ps a suit for 

the child becomes 

)lci, a thicker suit is 

then little "Auska" 

cs as "Our Charlie" 

ie chubby "Roegnia" 

nuch as dainty Flora 

collar. But Auska 

e nearly alike than 

othes arc just like 

scoat comes down to 

r square, and that is 

fur mittens and fur 

: for some ladies in 
JO to Greenland; for 
lo ironing, no scrub- 
ey don't even have 
ir hair. Esquimaux 

water, and if they 
ot use it, for it would 
;n the thermometer 

when they eat, my 
t in one hand and a 

and take a bite of 
:y carefully rub the 
ds and face, and feel 

made dark by the 

U'/nr/ lOHStitiitcs ll'nt////. 


smoke and grease. The men have long hair, also, 
and a thin, scattering beard over the face, which 
they never shave or trim, because they have no 
razor or shears. 

We had no church or court house, no school or 
factory, no doctor, lawyer or merchant, no money, 
jewelry or timepiece, not an axe, spade or hammer, 
no knife, fork or spoon, no bread, no cloth, no wood! 
I never saw as much wood in my country as would 
make one little match. For a needle we use the 
tooth of a fish; for thread the sinews of a reindeer. 

Rich people were those who had a flint. Poor 
people had to go and borrow it when they wanted 
to light a fire. Common folks would sit down flat 
on the fur carpet, but "tony" people would get blocks 
of ice or snow and put in the snow-house and cover 
them with fur for seats. But it was only the t/ios/ 
tonicst people who did that kind of a trick. 

My people believe in good and bad spirits. They 
think there is a big Good Spirit and several small 
ones, and one big bad spirit and several small ones. 
They think if they tell a lie or do anything wrong, 
the bad spirit will come and hurt them some way. 
If a baby gets sick the mother does not do anything 
for it. She thinks a bad spirit has hold of her child, 
and will get her too if she helps it in any way. If 
baby dies she lays It away in the cold snow and 
leaves it without a tear. When a man is sick they 
carry him into a separate snow-house, and all they 
do to help him is to throw in a piece of poor meat 


( Vti/ Kntnr. 

whieli they do not laic about thomst'lvcs. If a 
woman is sick she is not taken from hrr snow-house, 
but is no better cared for. The only ch'sease is some- 
thing like consumption in this country. After an 
l''.s(|uimaux tlies they drajj him out and bury him in 
the snow, piiinj; blocks of ice as hi^jh as they can 
above the j^rave. If he has not specially t(ivcn his 
spear and flint and skins to some of his friends be- 
fore he tlies, then everything is burieil with him, and 
the friends j^o home to think no more about him. 
If the white bear comes alon^j and di^s up the body 
they do not care. Tiiey never speak of a departed 
friend, because they fancy it woultl annoy the spirit, 
which is supposed to be not far off. 

When a man is first taken sick they do one thing 
for him, if he is not very bad. They gather round 
him and sing to the Good Spirit, in hopes that He 
will drive away the bad spirit. If the sick man re- 
covers they think a great deal of him. 

Sometimes my father would tell us stories about 
his parents and grand parents, and then he would 
tell how they said that their parents told how long, 
long ago the first people had come from Norway, 
Hut no one knew what Norway was like. Some said 
it was a great house somewhere; some said it was the 
moon, and some said it was where the Good Spirit 

One thing had a great deal of interest for us ail. 
When the sun shone out brightly at the beginning 
of the daytime it marked the first of the year, just 

Coiiiiiit:; of the Icclttniim. 


tlicinsflvcs. If ii 
m luT snow-house, 
ily disease is somc- 
ountry. After an 
t and bury him in 
hi^jh as they can 
specially ^ivcn his 

of his friends be- 
iried with him. and 

more about him. 
d digs up the body 
)cak of a departed 
d annoy the spirit, 

they do one thing 
'hey gather round 

in hopes that He 
f the sick man re- 

1 us stories about 
and then he would 
nts told how long, 
ame from Norway, 
as like. Some said 
lome said it was the 
;re the Good Spirit 

ntercst for us all. 
y at the beginning 
: of the year, just 

as New N'ear's Day in this con.itry. Th'-n mothiT 
and father would bring out the s;uk- i.acii niu' nil- 
made of a different kind of fur. Kathrr had his. 
mother had hers, and each of the children one. In 
each sack was a piece of bone for every first tiu'r 
that person had seen the sun. When ten bones vmic 
gathered they would tie them into a bundle, for they 
had not words to count more than tcti. 

In such a land was I born. In such a home was I 
brought up. In such pleasures I rejoiced, until there 
were about fourteen bones in my sack. Then son>e- 
thing happened which changed my whole life. Si.\ 
tall men came to our village. Our men were much 
frightened at first and did not know what to make 
of the giants. Some thought them bad spirits. 
Hut they were peaceable, and went hunting with 
our people and helped them, so that after a while 
they came to like one another. The strangers were 
Iceland fishermen. After they lived with us for more 
than a year, they were able to e.\plain how they were 
shipwrecked in a storm, and how they got on the ice 
and walked on the ice till they came to Greenland. 
They told how much they wanted to get back to 
their families, and how much better country Iceland 
was. At, three Esquimau.v families told the Ice- 
landers they would lend them their dogs and sleds 
if they would do them any good. And because they 
wanted their dogs back again they said they would 
go with them. 

ieLCt««lM<Niir*M)MMMMMM'K~ '<> 


Olof Krnirr. 

So they started out. My father's family was the 
largest in the party, there beiiijr ten oi us in all. Esquimaux families had only three or four 
children ir them — sometimes only one child, and often 
none at all. I was a young and giddy thing then, 
and was glaa to go. We traveled a long way down 
the coast, hunting as we went. Then we turned right 
out on to the ocean itself. On the way there were 
three polar bears killed and .some seals ai.d other an- 
imals, so that we had plenty to eat. I remember we 
would sometimes take something to eat when the 
sledges were flying over the ice with the dogs at full 
gallop. At intervals we fed the dogs, and they 
gathered closely round the sled and soon all were 
asleep. When we woke up we went on again. While 
on the ocean we often heard the sound of the ice 
breaking up, and would have to hurry away to escape 
being caught in the upheaval. We finally reached 
Iceland after being two months and some days on 
the way, according to the Icelanders' calculation, and 
having traveled about a thousand miles. 

The people in Iceland were astonished to see us 
little people. They came to see us from a long dis- 
tance. We were all weighed and measured. My 
father stood three feet five inches, and weighed i6o 
pounds. My mother was the same height woman 
that I am, and weighed 150. None of my brothers was 
quite so tall as my father, but they came near his 
weight. One of my si.sters was only three feet two 
inches, and weighed 142. I weighed 136 pounds. 


lid's family was the 
ciiifr ten oi us in all. 
1 only three or four 
ily one child, and often 
and giddy thing then, 
;led a long way down 
Then we turned right 
I the way there were 
Tie seals ai.'i other an- 
eat. I remember we 
ling to eat when the 
e with the dogs at full 

the dogs, and they 
;d and soon all were 
kvent on again. While 
the sound of the ice 
I hurry away to escape 

We finally reached 
:hs and some days on 
iders' calculation, and 
nd miles. 

astonished to see us 
;e us from a long dis- 

and measured. My 
les, and weighed i6o 
same height woman 
me of my brothers was 
t they came near his 
5 only three feet two 
veighed 136 pounds. 

» , i 

Kind Trent nil III by Missionaries- 


Now I am three feet four inches high, and weigh 120. 

The missionaries in Iceland took great iiitcrest in 
us, for they knew we were all heathens, and thty said 
they would like to take us into their schools and ed- 
ucate us. So each family was taken into a different 
school. Our family was placed in the Lutheran 
school, and there I studied for five years. My teacher 
was a good and kind man. His name was Ion Thor- 
derson. He wdr patient with me and helped me to 
learn; but some of the scholars were jealous of " the 
little thing" and nade fun of me. For this they had 
to carry notes hone to their parents, and this secured 
to them a good whipping a-piece, so that they were 
heard to wish "that little thing", had never come 
into the school. 

At first we lived several miles from the school, but 
we did not know anything about walking, in fact 
could not walk any distance, so they sent us on horse- 
back. They used to tie me on so that I would not 
fall off. It was a funny sight to behold us eight little 
tots going to school. 

I never shall forget the time when a kind friend 
gave me a pony. He was very gentle, and small 
enough so that by leading him along side a large 
stone I was able to climb upon his back. He would 
stand quietly and wait for me. I loved my pony and 
thought there was nothing in the world like him. 
But this long ride was very hard on us, and finally 
the teacher made arrangement so that we could live 
close to the school. 


Olof Kranr. 

The school system was very different in some re- 
spects from American schools. The teacher was al- 
ways the minister, and the school was connected 
with the church. A scholar had first to learn to read, 
and must keep at it until he could read better than 
the teacher. Then he was called upon to commit to 
memory large portions of history and of the Bible; 
and when he had learned them so well that he could 
repeat from beginning to end without the book, he 
was allowed to begin to write. He could not take 
pen in hand before that. After learning to write, he 
was taught figures; and after that I do not know what 

was done. 

The teacher never laid a hand on the scholar in 
punishment. If he did anything wrong, a note was 
.sent to his parents, and they flogged him soundly. 

I enjoyed the life in Iceland, for I saw and learned 
so much that was new. 

Some time in the spring there was a holiday, in 
which the young folks would cut up pranks, some- 
thing like the tricks of April-fool Day here. The 
girls would try to fasten a small sack of ashes upon 
the clothing of the boys, and they, in return, would 
seek to place a pebble in the pockets of the girls, 
endeavoring to do it so slyly that the sack or pebble 
would be carried about all day with.nit the one who 
bore it knowing anything about it. 

On one of these days, a girl tied a small sack into 
the beard of one of the men. while he was asleep, and 
he wore it all day before anyone told him, and then 




The Terrors of IViiilir. 


lifferent in some rc- 
The teacher was al- 
hool was connected 
first to learn to read, 
Id read better than 
d upon to commit to 
)ry and of the Bible; 
50 well that he could 
I'ithout the book, he 
He could not take 
learning to write, he 
,t I do not know what 

id on the scholar in 
ig wrong, a note was 
igged him soundly, 
for I saw and learned 

re was a holiday, in 
:ut up pranks, some- 
fool Day here. The 
ill sack of ashes upon 
hey, in return, would 
pockets of the girls, 
lat the sack or pebble 
with<Hit the one who 
it it. 

tied a small sack into 
lile he was asleep, and 
ne told him, and then 

they had a great laugh at his expense. I thought I 
would try my hand at this, so I made a little sack 
and tucked it into the corner of a patch, which a big 
follow wore upon his pants, the corner being ripped 
just enough to let the sack slip inside. I had great 
fun watching hmi all day, and when night came, he 
boasted that none of the girls had fooled him that 
day. "Oh, yes," said one of his companions, " the 
smallest girl in the house has fooled you badly." 
He felt pretty cheap when I pointed to the patch, 
and he found the sack sticking out .so that he might 
have seen it easily. 

Picking up fuel was hard work, and took a great 
deal of time. They had but little wood, and no coal, 
so that it was necessary to gather the droppings of 
animals, and make great piles of this kind of stuff in 
the summer, so that it would be dry enough to burn 
in the winter. 

If mice came about the houses and buildings in 
the fall, the Icelanders would fear a hard winter, and 
much damage to their sheep; for when the winter 
grew very severe, and the mice could get nothing 
else to eat, they would climb upon the sheep's 
backs, while they were lying close together in the 
sheds, and would burrow into the wool, back of the 
shoulder-blades, and eat the flesh, very often causing 
the death of the poor animals. 

The Icelanders used sheep's milk a great deal, and 
1 liked it. Sheep's milk is richer and sweeter than 
cow's milk. They used to put up a lot of milk in 

, _JXiir'-r^tfi^^'-'' 

22 Olof Kniiir. 

barrels, and put in some rennet, which 'voultl make 
it curdle into something like cotta^je cheese. This 
they would set aside for winter use. and all were 
very fond of it. The family would be considered 
\ ery poor who could not put up from eight to ten 
barrels of this food. 

They sometimes, also, would churn mutton tallow, 
or whale oil, in the .sheep's milk, and make a kind of 
butter. Whale oil makes a better butter than the 
tallow, and I think I like would it even yet. 

While most people had dishes and knives and 
forks, it was not customary to set the table, unless 
there was company present. Each one had a cup 
for himself, made of wood with staves like a barrel, 
and curiously bound with whale-bone hoops. They 
had handles upon them, but I do not know how fast- 
ened. A child's cup would hold about a quart, and 
a mans cup sometimes as much as three quarts. 
When each one had gotten his cup filled, he would 
take his place at any convenient spot in the room, 
on the bed. or anywhere, and proceed to empty the 
cup with great haste. We all had ravenous appe- 
tites, but did not always have enough to eat. In 
the spring we had a great treat, when the eggs and 
> flesh of wild fowl were to be had. We fared well 
when fish were plenty, but at other times a porridge 
made of Iceland moss and the curdled milk made up 
our fare. Some seasons they can raise a few vege- 
tables in Iceland, but this is not often. Of late years 
they cannot raise grain, although they used to raise 
good oats. 

Dctxth of I he Mollnr. 


L't, which 'voultl make 
;ottay[e cheese. This 
;er use, and all were 
would be considered 
up from eight to ten 

1 churn mutton tallow, 
Ik, and make a kind of 
better butter than the 
d it even yet. 
ishes and knives and 

1 set the table, unless 
Each one had a cup 

h staves like a barrel, 
ile-bone hoops. They 
do not know how fast- 
old about a quart, and 
nuch as three quarts, 
is cup filled, he would 
lent spot in the room, 
proceed to empty the 
11 had ravenous appe- 
ve enough to eat. In 
:at, when the eggs and 
e had. We fared well 
: other times a porridge 

2 curdled milk made up 
T can raise a few vege- 
jot often. Of late years 
ough they used to raise 

One of the books that we had there was a history 
(.f America, and in that it said that money could be 
picked up off the streets, almost. I have since found 
it quite a difficujty. But that book put me into the 
notion to come out here. So when a colony of five 
hundred Icelanders were about to start for Manitoba, 
I got my father to come with them. He had just 
money enough to bring himself and one of his child- 
ren, so he naturally chose his youngest and the one 
that was most anxious to come. 

My mother died with consumption when we had 
been in Iceland about a year. I shall never forget 
the circumstances of her illness. I hated her, and 
turned from her just as we did in Greenland. She 
thought it was all right, and told me to keep away 
and to hate her, for fear the bad spirit would get me. 
I said to my teacher one day: " I hate my mother." 
"Why, my dear child, you .should not do that." 
" But I do hate her; she has a bad spirit in her, 
;ind Esquimaux people always hate their friends 
when they get bad spirits in them." 

Tears ran down the good man's cheeks as he ex- 
claimed, " Why, the dear child, she doesn't know any- 
thing ! " 

Then he took me upon his knee and began 
to explain that my mother did not have a bad spirit, 
but was sick. He dropped his school work entirely, 
and for three days devoted himself to explaining the 
Christian belief. Then he made me go to my mother 
and tell her all about it. My mother was glad— oh, 
so glad; and she died happy. 


Olof Kroiur. 

My four brothers and three sisters are in Icchmd, 
yet. I promised when I left that I wouid send for 
them, and I still hope to have them all with me. 

Wc sailed in a ship from Iceland to Scotland. 1 
cannot remember at what city we landed. l'"rom 
there I had my first railway ride, into luigland, ami 
was much frightened by the noise and motion of tlu 
cars. Then we sailed to Quebec, and then came U< 
Winnipeg;. It took us five months and five days tn 
come from Iceland to Manitoba. 

When I came to Manitoba, I was sick for nearly 
two years. The Iceland ministers were very kind to 
me, and took care of me while I was sick. When 1 
^rot well, I started out to work for my living. 1 
could not speak one word of English, and I was 
afraid to try. 

The first person I worked for was a half-bretd 
woman, who had a rough, quarrelsome lot of chil- 
dren that I had to wait upon. Once in a while! was 
called into the front room, and would find some 
strangers there. One day the mistress was called 
away, when I was sent into the room, and the gentle- 
man and lady who were there gave me a quarter, 
each. She had been making money out of mc in 
this way all the while, but all the money I received 
for some months of hard labor was what these people 
gave me. 

Then I was taken sick with the measles. The 
woman turned me out of doors. I did not know 
where to go. . I just ran round and round the house. 






I wa 

to w 
was ( 
her t 
not ; 
and ! 
to CO 

was 1 
let m 


istcrs arc in Iceland, 
lat I woi'.icl send for 
hem all with nic. 
land to Scotland. 1 
J we landed. l''ruin 
ie, into lui5.jland, ami 
ijse and motion of tin 
ec, and then came to 
nths and five days tn 

'. was sick for nearly 
ters were very kind to 
I was sick. When 1 
rk for my living. 1 
■ English, and I was 

for was a half-breed 
irrclsome lot of chii- 
Oncc in a while I was 
and would find some 
le mistress was called 
room, and the gentlt- 
1 gave me a quarter, 
money out of me in 
:he money i received 
rt'as what these people 

h the measles. The 

ors. I did not know 

and round the house, 

/.//) /// Mtuiitohii 


.V young lady, from one of the best families in Win- 
nipeg, found me in this plight, took me by the hand 
ind led me home. She nursed me till I was well, 
,uid then gave me good clothes and found me a 
place to wori-:. :')he told me to come back to her if 
I was in trouble again. 

After working for some time in this place, I came 
to work for Mrs. C, the lady who is with me now. 
When she first saw me she thought I was a little 
child, and did not see how I could be of any ' to 
her. But she pitied me because she thought I 
was cold, and gave me something to do. I lived with 
her three months. When I first came to her I could 
not .speak enough English to tell her I liked coffee 
better than tea. My work was washing dishes. 
They would help me into a chair so that I could 
reach the table. When at last I was able to explain, 
with the help of an Iceland girl who lived next door, 
that I desired to travel as a curiosity, hoping in this 
way to make money enough to bring my brothers 
and sisters from Iceland, Mr. and Mrs. C. consented 
to come with me. 

My father agreed to let me go, if I would go with 
respectable people and remain with them. I had 
worn my seal skin suit about in Manitoba until it 
was worn out, but my father had taken care of my 
polar bear suit, so I had that to bring with me. He 
let me bring his new flint and walrus tusk, also. 

But a few months afterwards he sent for his .spear, 
because he thought he could not get along without it, 


Olof K rarer. 

so 1 returned it to him. He is still liviivj in Mani- 
toba, and is 65 years old. This is several years older 
than people live in Greenland. Oldest people wc 
ever knew were 60 years old. This I know from the 
Icelanders, who went round to all the snow houses 
and counted the bones in the different sacks. 

When I reached Minneapolis I was taken sick, and 
the doctors did not know what to do for mc. They 
kept me in a warm room, and I grew worse every 
day At last Mr. C. heard of a doctor who had been 
in Greenland, and sent for him. Under his advice I 
was taken to Minnetonka and kept in a cold room 

and I got well. 

At first I traveled as a curiosity and charged ten 
cents. All I could do was to let the people see me, 
show my costume, flint and tusk, sing a few songs, 
etc By degrees I learned to answer questions, and 
at last came to talk pretty well. While we were at 
a place in Indiana, called Cloverdale, some profes- 
sors and a minister urged me to give a lecture. They 
secured a large hall, and when I peeked through a 
hole in the curtain I saw about 300 people, and was 
nearly scared out of my wits. But Mrs. C. got me 
mad over something about my dress, and the curtain 
went up while I was standing there, and I spoke to 
them right along. That was Dec. 30th, .884. Smce 
then I have been lecturing right along, except in 
some short times of sickness, and the hottest weath- 
er I have been in Minnesota, Wisconsm, Iowa 
Uinois. Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Missouri. Kansas. 


of r 
or s 












'V/ /''arm in dniiilniii/!' 


still living in Mani- 
I is several years oldi i 

Oldest people wc 
This I know from the 
all the snow housr^ 
ifferent sacks, 
i I was taken sick, and 
to do for me. They 
d I grew worse every 
a doctor who had been 

Under his advice 1 
kept in a cold room, 

sity and charged ten 
let the people see mc, 
isk, sing a few songs, 
answer questions, and 
11. While we were at 
overdale, some profes- 

give a lecture. They 

1 I peeked through a 
ut 300 people, and was 

But Mrs. C. got me 
y dress, and the curtain 
there, and I spoke to 
Dec. 30th, 1884. Since 
right along, except in 
and the hottest weath- 
3ta, Wisconsin, Iowa 
ana, Missouri. Kansas, 

and Nebra.ska. and I hope by next year, to have all 
my brothers and sisters with me, so that we can 
travel together and help the missionary teachers in 
Iceland, where we got our education in the first place. 

A great many funny things have been said to me 
by visitors, and a great many curious questions 
asked. Generally, people arc kind and considerate, 
but sometimes they are rude and uncivil. I am al- 
ways glad to satisfy rea.sonable curiosity to the best 
of my ability, but I do not like impertinence any 
better than any body else. 

I was somewhat surpri.sed by one old lady, a year 
or so ago. After she had listened for some time, 
and become greatly interested, she came up and 
said, " Where did yeou say yeou kum from.' " " From 
the eastern coast of Greenland." "Greenland! why 
h, yes. I know that country. My husband's got a 
farm there." A farm in Greenland! Well, a good 
many other people have made mistakes fully equal 
to the old lady's. 

Americans, I think you do not realize your bles- 
sings in this great land of plenty, where you have so 
many fine things. Even here, I often see sad faces, 
and hear words of discontent. Sometimes I am a 
little discontented myself, when I see something I 
want, and think I cannot, or ought not to, have it. 
But I soon get over that feeling when I remember 
my home in the frozen north, where we sat still 
thrcAigh the weary hours, shivering with the cold, 
choked by the smoke, and often almost perishing 
with hunger. 




jX Old/ KiiVi'r. 

If 1 was to yu buck to my race ef pco))!., I would 
not be able to tell them about what I sec and luai 
in this country. They have not the lan^juauc to 
express the thoujjht. They have seen nothing like 
a sewin^j machine, or a piano. They have no mate- 
rials to enable them to make machines. They never 
saw a painting t,r a drawing. Their wild, rude songs 
is all they have that is anything like music. They 
have no idea of a book. They eat when they're 
hungry, and sleep when they're sleepy. They are 
happy and contented when they dont kmn.' '//,' bet- 
ter. , . 

The only relatives we knew about, were orothers 
and sisters, father and mother, and our grandparents^ 
As for other relatives, such as uncles, aunts and 
cousins, we knew nothing about them. We lived in 
small settlements of thirty or forty families. No one 
seemed to take any interest in finding out how many 
settlements there were, or how many people lived in 
them We had only one n.imc each, just as you 
name animals in this countiv. My father's name 
was Krauker. My name was OKvar. Before we left 
Iceland the whole family were baptized. They 
named my father Salve Krarer, and they baptized 
me Olof Krarer, making the Iceland names as near 
like the Esquimaux names as they could, but giving 
my father a new name. Salve, which means some- 
thing like " saved." ^ 

• (if pco])!. , 1 would 
that I sec and Ixmi 
Qt the lan^juajic to 
e seen nothing hke 
rht'y have no inate- 
:hines. They never 
leir uilil, rude sonjjs 
like music. They 
y eat when they're 
: sleepy. They are 
■ doiit know •'iiy bet- 

bout, were brothers 
id our grandparents. 
s uncles, aunts an<l 
: them. We lived in 
rty families. No one 
nding out how many 
many people lived in 
w: each, just as you 
My father's name 
iKvar. Before we left 
ere baptized. They 
r, and they baptized 
celand names as near 
hey could, but giving 
, which means some- 


On Iceland's damp and stormy shore. 

Mid Geyser's throe and Ocean's roar, 

A sturdy race on sterile soil. 

Pursue their unremitting toil; 

Struggling against stern poverty. 

And Denmark's hostile mastery. 

Farther northward, bleak and cold, 

Bound by Winter's icy hold, 

Where eternal snows abound, — 

There the Esquimaux is found. 

House of ice and suit of fur; 

Food, the flesh of polar bear; 

Tusks of walrus, the only arm. 

Ferocious beasts alone alarm; 

A dog-sleigh ride his only pleasure; 

A piece of Hint his choicest treasure; 

Ambition's height to steal a wife,. 

For her he dares to risk his life. 

He tells no lie nor ever swears; 

For neighbor, as for brother, cares. 

The golden rule he never heard. 

Hut tries to keep its every word. 

Father to son the story told. 

How sailors hardy, brave and bold, 

Far back in bygone centuries. 

Sought to explore the Northern seas; 

Storm-bound, shipwrecked and cast- away, 


Hy li()rriil fate compelled Id sta>-, 

They yieliieil not to ^jrim despair. 

Hut bearded Winter in his lair; 

liravely huildin^f tlieir snow house domes, 

They settled into northern homes. 

Lost to tlieir ken is old Norwa>-, 

But cherished still in their memory. 

Tile risiiij^ sun be^an the year; 

I'^tur months his rays shone full and clear 

A month he j^nive a mildei li}.(lit, 

"Twixt the lonj^r t|;iy and lont,ar ni^dit. 

I''()r half the year Aurora's l)eams. 

Tile moon's .soft ray, and starry fleams, 

Guided the liunter to his home, 

Whene'er he chose afar to roain. 

Koremost amon^ his tribe and clan, 

There liveil a hardy little man; 

His wife, renowned for spirit hi^h. 

Rejoiced in her lar^e family; — 

Kour sturdy sons, four maidens brown. 

Gathered in harmony around 

Their fireplace, and to^etlier dwelt, 

And love for one another felt. 

One fateful day there came alonfi^ 

Six Iceland fishers, stern and strong. 

The Esquimaux in terror fled 

From spirits evil, so they said; 

But meeting them with friendly mien. 

The pigmies soon at ease were seen. 

The giants more contented grew. 


lioiisf domes, 



lull aiut clear; 

t,'er ni^'Iit. 


rry ^jlcains, 



lul clan, 


ens brown, 


r dwelt, 


d strong. 



idly mien, 

ere seen. 



Ami ea^jer sc.iri d for ktiowicd^je new; 
Hut erst they thu ij,dit of native shore, 
And longed to viiw their home once more. 
At leii(^th, in ^ iiUiiroiis spirit bold. 

Their purpose to tlieir friends they told. 
To seek their lov'd latul once again, 
Hy crossing; on the frozen main. 

The trial made, the deed was done! 
A victory j^reat. and nobly won! 
Three families assistance lent. 
Upon returning they were bent, 
Till finding this a better land. 

They settled on the barren strand; 
In mission schools were kindly taught, 
And daily grew in word and thought. 

l-'ive years rolletl by; consumption's claim 
Was laid upon the mother's frame. 
The father loved his youngest child. 
And with her crossed the ocean wild; 
With many mishaps, much fatigue, 
They found a home in Winnipeg. 

Five years again had claimed their own; 

The daughter now to woman grown, 

Though but a little child for size, ' 

Assayed a wond'rous enterprise — 

To win from gen'rous strangers' hand, 

By telling of her native land, 

Her fortune, and to meet once more 


32 i.futoDu-. 

Her sisters three and brothers four. 

Pray tell me, friend, didst e'er thou find 

A braver spirit, nobler mind, 

A name more worthy to go down 

On hist'ry's page with bright renown ? ■ 

Captain Holm recently returned to Copenhagen, 
after having spent two years and a half exploring 
the almost unknown region of the east coast of 
Greenland. ^Although ten or twelve expeditions 
have set out for East Greenland in the past two cen- 
turies, almost all of them in search of the lost 
Norsemen, who were supposed to have settled there, 
only one ship ever reached the coast. 

The great ice masses, sometimes hundreds of 
miles wide, that are perpetually piled up against the 
shore, have kept explorers from East Greenland 
long after all Arctic lands were fairly well known. 
With three assistants, Captain Holm landed at Cape 
Farewell, and then went north some four hundred 
miles. He has returned with large collections, rep- 
resenting the flora, fauna, geology, and anthropology 
of this hitherto unknown portion of the earth's sur- 
face. He found in those cold and dismal regions, 
isolated from the world, a race of people who had 
never heard, or known, of the great civilized nations 
of the earth. They seemed to lead happy lives, and 
live in a communicative way in hamlets. They 
differ entirely in language, and physical character, 
from the Esquimaux of West Greenland. — Dcmor- 
esfs Moiithh. ^^ . 



ii n^xaJW» ietyi i4tilM 

IS four. 

2r thou find 


t rcMiown ? 

led to Copenhagen, 
id a half exploring 
f the east coast of 

twelve expeditions 
in the past two ccn- 
search of the lost 
o have settled there, 

itimes hundreds of 
piled up against the 
m East Greenland 

fairly well known, 
lolm landed at Cape 
some four hundred 
rge collections, rep- 
ly, and anthropology 
n of the earth's sur- 
and dismal regions, 

of people who had 
eat civilized nations 
ead happy lives, and 

in hamlets. They 

physical character, 
Greenland. — Dcmor-